What is Education Scholarship?
Education Scholarship encompasses a variety of academic activities. Boyer’s classic definition, from his 1990 report Scholarship Reconsidered, outlines four categories of educational scholarship:
1. Scholarship of discovery (research)
2. Scholarship of integration (connects across disciplines and contextualizes)
3. Scholarship of application (engagement; connection between research and practice)
4. Scholarship of teaching (teaching and learning)
This definition is now widely accepted across multiple academic disciplines and enables the support and recognition of a wide spectrum of scholarly educational activities.
In order to be considered scholarly, Glassick (2000) developed assessment criteria that are applicable across diverse areas of education. These are:
1. Clear goals
2. Adequate preparation (incorporates up to date knowledge and consultation)
3. Appropriate methodology
4. Significant results
5. Effective dissemination (through peer-reviewed publication, or presentation to ensure results are publicly available to others)
6. Reflective critique
With regard to the scholarship of teaching, excellent teaching per se is not in and of itself scholarly activity. Instead, several education theorists (Diamond, 2002; Hutchings and Shulman, 1999; Fincher et al. 2000) have defined scholarship in teaching as being public, open to critique and evaluation and in a form upon which others can build.
Based on the work of the 2005 AAMC Working Group on Educational Scholarship, the AAMC's Educational Scholarship Guide states that Education Scholarship "refers to any material, product or resource originally developed to fulfill a specific educational purpose that has been successfully peer-reviewed and is subsequently made public through appropriate dissemination for use by others.”
AAMC. (2013). Educational Scholarship Guides. Retrieved July 2014 at: https://www.mededportal.org/download/190392/data/educational_scholarship_guide.pdf
Boyer, E.L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Diamond, R.M. (2002). Defining Scholarship for the Twenty-First Century. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 90, 73-79.
Fincher, R-E.E., Simpson, D.E., Mennin, S.P., Rosenfeld, G.C., Rothman, A., Cole Mcgrew, M., Hansen, P.A., Mazmanian, P.E. & Turnbull, J.M. (2000). Scholarship in Teaching: An Imperative for the 21st Century. Academic Medicine, 75 (9), 887-894.
Glassick C.E. (2002). Boyer’s Expanded Definitions of Scholarship, The Standards for Assessing Scholarship, and the Elusiveness of the Scholarship of Teaching. Acad Med, 75, 877-880.